Amur Cork Tree (Phellodendron amurense)
Amur Cork Tree is a member of the citrus family (Rutaceae). Native to Korea, northern China (the Amur River near Siberia, and Japan, its derivatives are used to relieve inflammation, pain, and eczema. Modern science has demonstrated its efficacy as an anti-inflammatory1,2,3 and anti-microbial agent4,5,6.
Cuéllar MJ, et al., Topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Asian medicinal plants used in dermatological disorders. Fitoterapia. 2001 Mar;72(3):221-9.
Park YK, Chung YS, Kim YS, Kwon OY, Joh TH. Inhibition of gene expression and production of iNOS and TNF-alpha in LPS-stimulated microglia by methanol extract of Phellodendri cortex. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Jul;7(7):955-62..
Xian YF, Mao QQ, Ip SP, Lin ZX, Che CT. Comparison on the anti-inflammatory effect of Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis and Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis in 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1425-30.
Quan H,et al. Potent in vitro synergism of fluconazole and berberine chloride against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole.
Yu HH, et al., Antimicrobial activity of berberine alone and in combination with ampicillin or oxacillin against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Food. 2005;8(4):454-61.
6. Park KS, Kang KC, Kim JH, Adams DJ, Johng TN, Paik YK. Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999 May;43(5):667-74.